Canada E-Commerce Laws

e-commerce law

A Few Considerations Regarding Canadian Electronic Commerce Law And Where It Is Applicable

Just like most other countries in the world, Canada has adopted a series of acts and regulations to govern the electronic commerce. Canada has enacted legislation that is meant to address several contractual formalities as well as to regulate some procedural aspects in the process of formation of contracts in the information technology trade.

Even though there are a set of regulations that apply to electronic commerce, in Canada, most regulations are more subject to provincial jurisdiction rather than federal jurisdiction. While there is indeed federal legislation which regulates the dealing of electronic documents or other electronic fillings, these are usually applicable when the federal government is involved in electronic trade. Despite the fact that there are some generalities and some central features which regulate the electronic commerce, there are also many differences between federal electronic commerce legislation and provincial statutes.

So in most cases, it is usually the matter of consulting the provincial electronic commerce legislation rather than the federal legislation. There is also the consideration that businesses carrying out trade in a specific province must ascertain specific requirements which are applicable in it, and that is why the business must refer to the legislation of that specific province.

e-commerce-law-and-ethics

In addition to the legislation governing electronic commerce, all business owners conducting electronic commerce in Canada should be aware that there are other indirect laws which might apply. So besides the electronic commerce legislation, there may be other federal or provincial laws which govern several aspects of the trade such as advertising, privacy, consumer protection, language, and there are also some set of laws that apply to on-line businesses.

Provincial electronic commerce legislations

In Ontario for example, there is the Consumer Protection Act which regulates internet agreements with consumers. The Consumer Protection Act imposes certain disclosure obligations to the vendor while also providing consumers with some cancellation rights if the law is not respected. All vendors have to disclose specific information that is not only readily visible, but also in a printable format. In case the vendor does not respect the regulation, then the consumer will have the right to cancel the agreement within 7 days after having received from the vendor a copy with the disclosed information. Although the Ontario legislation is provincial, it is applicable to any electronic commerce agreement that has either the vendor or the consumer residing in Ontario.

The Consumer Protection Act has been made public by the Canadian Competition Bureau through an Information Bulletin and it was sent to representations on the Internet. This was done in order to help all those natural or legal persons that are making representations on the online medium to know about their obligations as well as their rights that fall under the Competition Act provisions which aim to regulate things such as misleading advertising and other practices which may be considered as being deceptive. There are also other provincial electronic commerce regulations which put more emphasis on fair practice and consumer protection.

 

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Useful Facts about Criminal Justice Majors

criminal justice

The purpose of criminal justice majors is for students to learn about the systems that are established by governments so that crime offenders are apprehended, arrested, prosecuted and then punished and social order is preserved. The courses are chosen so that students can understand both crime and justice and how the justice system works.

The major will equip students with knowledge of what the origins of criminal behavior are, of how a police unit is administrated, crime laboratory technology, probation, parole and corrections and theory on criminal justice. The criminal justice major also aims to determine students to think critically about the balance between public order and individual freedoms and rights. Students can choose the area of criminal justice they want to focus on, for example they could choose law enforcement, homeland security or forensic science.

The field of criminal justice is a highly interdisciplinary one, intersecting with psychology, sociology, natural sciences, computer science and communication. Courses that might be taught as part of the Criminal Justice major could be some of the following: Criminology, Survey of Criminal Courts, Police & Society, Prisons and Prisoners, Criminal Procedure, Juvenile Justice, Criminal Justice Research Methods, Quantitative Methods in Psychology, Law and Politics, Computer Analysis of Social Science Data, Eyewitness Testimony and others.

The courses vary a lot from institution to institution. There are many baccalaureate programs that encourage or even require students to take part in internships in criminal justice setting for course credit.

Criminal justice graduates have a wide range of careers to choose from:

  • Police officer (the higher ranks)
  • Correctional officer
  • Parole or probation officer
  • Crime analyst
  • Crime prevention specialist
  • Legal research assistant
  • Court coordinator
  • Border patrol agent
  • Detective
  • Paralegal
  • Court reporter
  • Fish and game warden
  • Lawyer

Some of these jobs require further training or education aside from the criminal justice major, while others do not necessarily require the major, but having the degree ensures higher chances of advancing in job position.

Will you find the criminal justice major to be difficult?

The answer is very subjective, as it depends on your abilities and ideals in life. What are you generally interested in? Do you want a criminal justice degree just because your friends are aiming at one too? Because of TV ads? These might not be the best reasons for attending the criminal justice major, but some of the following could be:

  • You are interested in the problems faced by society.
  • You are an analytical person and enjoy digging deeper into a problem in order to find proper answers and solutions.
  • You like working with people.
  • You are interested in what is right and in social order

Aside from the Criminal Justice major, what other majors are related to the field of criminal justice?

The following majors are also closely linked to the field of criminal justice:

  • Corrections – students learn theories and principles of correctional science and prepare to become correctional officers or occupy other jobs in incarceration facilities.
  •  Corrections Administration – students are being prepared to plan and administrate facilities where offenders are housed for rehabilitation, be they private or public institutions.
  • Criminal Justice and Corrections – correctional sciences are studied for becoming a correctional officer or holding another position within an incarceration facility
  • Criminal Justice/Law Enforcement Administration – students learn to apply theories and practices of organization administration and criminal justice to agencies in the law enforcement field.
  • Criminal Justice/Police Science – this program aims to prepare students in performing duties specific to police and public security officers.
  • Criminal Justice/Safety Studies – the program has the criminal justice system in focus, with its organizational components and activities and also its legal and public policy contexts.

All in all, as you can see, you have many choices, all very rewarding, even though none a piece of cake. If you are properly motivated, then you probably will not find the challenges posed by such a major to be too difficult.

 

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Regina Criminal Defense Lawyers: How Much Is a Proper Defense Worth?

criminal defense attorneys

Although most Regina criminal lawyers are considered to be some of the best in the province of Saskatchewan, many people still tend to choose the attorneys they hire based on the fees they require.

These fees may differ, and some attorneys provide more affordable services than others; however, as you will likely find, the difference between a quality service and one that is not up to par with the best recommendations can be quite a debilitating problem if your case is more complicated, requiring the insight of a real law expert.

Discussions Related to Criminal Lawyer Fees

In case you believe that the fees you need to pay for the services of a criminal defense lawyer in Regina may be too big, there are a few important things you need to know about before dismissing a more qualified lawyer just because he’s asking for a larger fee:

  • When it comes to criminal defense cases, there is far too much at stake to gamble with a less qualified lawyer. You need an attorney who can ensure that your interests and rights are fully protected and that you have the best chances of getting through your trial without being convicted.
  • In the case of a criminal trial, you don’t just pay for the services that a lawyer provides you with. The attitude, approach, compassion and experience that a good lawyer can provide are key benefits that you won’t find anywhere else.
  • While you’re paying for an attorney’s experience and skill, the fees you provide are also based on the difficulty of your case, covering the time and effort spent on researching various defense strategies.

How Regina Criminal Defense Attorneys Protect Your Rights

Even though some believe that the fees required by criminal defense lawyers are too demanding, the fact remains that the value of even just getting some insight on the charges brought against you and the rights and options that the law allows you to retain can be an invaluable asset.

If you’ve been accused of serious violence offenses, DUI and motor vehicle offenses, income tax violations or anything else that may qualify as a criminal offense in the province of Saskatchewan, reputable lawyers based in Regina whose preferred area of practice is one of these criminal defense branches can help you in many different ways.

They can provide assistance with bail hearings, trials and preliminary hearings, and they will be with you every step of the way until the sentence hearing and beyond, appealing for the reduction of your sentence and the resolution of your case.

Also, if you’ve been charged with 1st, 2nd or 3rd offense DUI charges, the specialized DUI lawyers in Regina will be the best persons qualified to help you get a better result by using their extensive knowledge of the laws in Saskatchewan.

Criminal cases are some of the most widely discussed and controversial cases in Canada, and if you truly want to avoid facing hefty fines and long periods of jail time, the efforts made by some of the most reputable criminal defense attorneys in Regina are more than worth the expense of the fees involved.

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Penalties and Consequences for a DUI

driving under the influence

What is DUI?

DUI stands for “driving under the influence” or, in other, words drunken driving. This means driving while having blood levels of alcohol above the legal limit, limit that in Canada is of 0.8%. Of course, driving while under the influence of alcohol is illegal because of the great number of accidents in which drivers who had consumed alcoholic drinks were involved. DUI also refers to having consumed illegal drugs and driving while impaired by them. 

What are the consequences of drinking and driving? 

consequences of dui

Under the BC Motor Vehicle Act, for concentrations under 0.08:

  • If you drink and drive, the BC Motor Vehicle Act firstly says that you can get an immediate roadside prohibition (IRP). This means that, if the police have probable grounds to consider that your capacity to drive is impacted by alcohol or drugs, then you may get prohibition from driving and lose your car right away.

For a first offence of such – and the blood level must be between 0.05 and 0.08 – you can get a three-day driving prohibition, three-day impoundment of vehicle, you will pay impound and towing fees, a $200 penalty and a license reinstatement fee of $250. The second and third offences are more severely punished.

  • 24-hour prohibition from driving and vehicle impoundment – Again, if there are reasonable and probable grounds for the police to think that you are unable to drive due to alcohol or drugs, you can be imposed not to drive for 24 hours and your vehicle can be impounded. Your blood alcohol concentration (BAC) needn’t be tested and the prohibition will go on your driving record.
  • If you are a new driver, learner or novice, you will get a 12-hour suspension (a breath test must be taken) and you have to start your stage again. For BAC over 0.05 the consequences are the same as with more experienced drivers.
  • ingnition interlock deviceThere are cases where an ignition interlock device will be required. Such a device requires a breath sample of yours so that you can start the car.
  • You might have higher insurance costs.

Driving with a blood alcohol level of above 0.08 is a criminal offence, meaning that the Canadian Criminal Code deals with it. Being charged with DUI means that you will be going to court. There, the Crown will attempt to prove beyond reasonable doubt that your capacity to drive was affected by alcohol or by a drug, legal or illegal.

If you are convicted for a first offence, the minimum fine will be of $1000 and you will be prohibited from driving for one and up to three years. A second offence also comes with a minimum of 30 days in jail and with a longer driving prohibition. Having killed someone is always a sentence to jail. Higher insurance premiums will also be requested.

Get counselling

If you are charged with DUI, then a DUI attorney can help establish if there is any defence you can use, if a plea bargain can be arranged and advise you on how to plead. The possible legal defences are quite technical, that is more reason to be counselled by a professional. Of course, after these initial steps, he or she can represent you in court and you will most likely appreciate the help.

 

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